In this section
Satsuma Spring main view
Satsuma Spring boil
Satsuma Spring private property sign
Satsuma Spring is a low third-magnitude spring with a circular pool 22 feet in diameter. Clear, blue water discharges from a 5-foot-diameter opening in the bottom of the pool. A prominent boil is visible on the pool surface, and there is a strong hydrogen sulfide odor. The sand bottom was covered with organic debris and algae. The spring run flows about 0.2 mile toward the northwest to the St. Johns River.
Discharge at Satsuma Spring was measured 14 times by St. Johns River Water Management District from 1993 to 2001. The difference between the minimum and maximum discharges is 0.78 cubic feet per second (cfs) over the period. The maximum measured discharge of 1.54 cfs occurred in September 2000; the minimum discharge of 0.76 cfs occurred in May 2000. The mean and median discharges for the period are 1.11 cfs and 1.11 cfs, respectively (see the table below).
Satsuma Spring was sampled 15 times by the district from 1993 to 2001. Summary statistics of the water quality data for selected variables are shown in the table below.
Summary statistics of water quality and discharge at Satsuma Spring
|Alkalinity, total, mg/L as CaCO3||93.1||96.7||96.4||102.0||13||1995−2001|
|Calcium, total, mg/L as Ca||103.1||120.7||118.1||142.9||15||1993−2001|
|Chloride, total, mg/L as Cl||1290.0||1606.5||1596.0||1878.1||14||1993−2001|
|Fluoride, total, mg/L as F||0.29||0.32||0.32||0.34||14||1995−2001|
|Magnesium, total, mg/L as Mg||75.6||92.7||95.4||106.0||15||1993−2001|
|Nitrate + nitrite, total, mg/L as N||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||2||1995−1999|
|Orthophosphate, total, mg/L as P||0.02||0.03||0.03||0.03||13||1995−2001|
|Phosphorus, total, mg/L as P||0.03||0.03||0.03||0.03||1||2001|
|Potassium, total, mg/L as K||24.0||28.3||28.6||32.8||15||1993−2001|
|Sodium, total, mg/L as Na||712.8||884.0||909.0||1040.0||15||1993−2001|
|Specific conductance, field, µmhos/cm at 25°C||4740||5687||5914||6190||11||1993−2001|
|Specific conductance, lab, µmhos/cm at 25°C||4660||5464||5543||6190||3||1993−2001|
|Sulfate, total, mg/L as SO4||213.3||253.9||261.5||274.0||14||1995−2001|
|Total dissolved solids, mg/L||2500||3080||3130||3500||13||1993−2001|
|Water temperature, °C||23.1||24.6||24.7||25.0||16||1993−2001|
mg/L = milligrams per liter
cfs = cubic feet per second
Age of discharge water
The age of water discharging from Satsuma Spring was determined by measuring the concentration of tritium, delta carbon-13, and carbon-14 in the spring discharge, which was measured in May 2001. Satsuma Spring had a tritium concentration of 0.85 tritium units, which suggests that the water is less than 48 years old. Satsuma Spring had a delta carbon-13 value of −7.01 parts per thousand and a carbon-14 concentration of 20% modern carbon, which results from the mixing of Upper and Lower Floridan aquifer water. The Fontes and Garnier (1979) carbon-14 age is approximately 2,500 years old.